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Cities like Jericho, Ur are built, requiring all sorts of architecture and forms of public art.
Tomb art, exemplified by Egyptian pyramids, becomes highly developed: see Egyptian Architecture for details. Europe experiences a much later Neolithic period, and lags behind artistically.
Sadly, none of the prehistoric rock carvers, sculptors or painters are known to us, so their works will have to speak for themselves!
Also, any compilation of ancient art is limited by the hand of nature: after all, over hundreds of millennia, soft rock crumbles, pigments disappear, and wood perishes.
Once contemporaneity has been established the age of the object can be assessed, sometimes quite precisely, using techniques of "absolute" or chronological dating.
A major type of absolute dating is radiometric dating.
Trade flourishes around the Mediterranean, leading to exchange of artistic techniques and materials. Early Chinese Pottery also flourished, as did the art of India.
Nearby hand stencils were dated to about 37,000 BCE. The oldest art in Asia and the world's oldest hand stencil. Upper Paleolithic (40,000-8,000 BCE) The major period of early fine art, exemplified by portable art like the Venus Figurines, bas-relief sculpture and the polychrome cave paintings and engravings of Lascaux and Altamira. Neanderthal man replaced by anatomically modern man, like Cro-Magnon Man.
CHRONOLOGY OF THE UPPER PALEOLITHIC Aurignacian Art (40,000-25,000 BCE) Gravettian Art (25,000-20,000 BCE) Solutrean Art (20,000-15,000 BCE) Magdalenian Art (15,000-10,000 BCE) The Magdalenian period witnessed the apogee of Franco-Cantabrian cave art, with the Lascaux cave paintings and the Altamira cave paintings setting awesome standards of colouring and composition.
Meanwhile, in Australia, the Bradshaw Paintings (c.15,500 BCE) appeared, along with a wide variety of pictographs and petroglyphs made by the aboriginal creators of Ubirr Rock Art in Arnhem Land, Kimberley Rock Art in northern Australia and Burrup Peninsula Rock Art in the Pilbara.
Meanwhile Japanese art emerged in the form of ancient Jomon Pottery (from 14,500 BCE).
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Here is a list of the top 10 oldest works of Prehistoric art created during the Stone Age.